Fathers and Sons by Ivan Turgenev

The main theme

The main theme portrayed by Ivan Turgenev’s novel of Fathers and Sons is change. The characters in the play showed clearly the gap between nihilism and old ideas. The young characters such as Bazarov represented the new modern idealist and Pavel represented the old nihilism. The radicalism of the two characters, Arkady and Bazarov was as a result of their education. Since Bazarov strongly believed that nothing in the world had a real existence, he started to influence Arkady to believe in nihilism.

It resulted in the father of Arkady beginning to develop a negative attitude towards them after receiving the two warmly when they came from school. Pavel, the brother of Nikolai was against Bazarov because of his nihilism beliefs. Arkady and Bazarov then moved to visit Arkady’s relative in the neighboring province where they met an elegant woman whose means were very independent, Madame Odintsova.

Bazarov declared his love to Madame that was in contrary with his nihilism beliefs. With Madame’s decline of his love, they proceeded with their journey to Bazarov’s home. After visiting Bazarov’s parents, they moved back to Arkady’s home.

Finally, Arkardy got engaged with Katya, Madame’s sister, Arkady’s father, Nikolai married his servant, Fenichka, Pavel was secretly in love with Fenichka that made him fight Bazarov, and Bazarov eventually died after being kissed by Madame on his deathbed.

Evidences of change

Through the novel, there are evidences of change from old nihilism to new modern idealism represented by Bazarov. There were some cultures in the community that were considered unethical in the society like if people could not honor the moral principles of the society. The old nihilism believed in these cultural and moral principles and anybody who did follow the moral values were sometimes not accepted in the midst of the society as he could influence others to develop such unethical behavior. For instance, in the novel, Pavel viewed Bazarov differently as he was out to change the moral behaviors of the society.

Bazarov had influenced Arkady and they had a similar belief of nihilism. The theme of change is finally seen when Pavel who was against nihilism fought with Bazarov when he kissed Fenichka on her forehead and Pavel was secretly in love with her. Nikolai, the father of Arkady also married his servant and they stayed together. It implies that there is a secret practice of nihilism beliefs by all characters as they rejected cultural principles.

The cultural and moral principles in regard to the society were highly honored by all members of the society. The societies were very responsible in their activities and how they related amongst themselves. The people who tried to go contrary to the wish and moral principles of the community could sometimes be excommunicated. For instance, in the novel, Pavel is a character who represented leaders who monitors and detect strange behaviors in the society.

Pavel did not welcome Bazarov when they were from school because he realized that Bazarov believed in nihilism and he had influenced their son, Arkady. When Arkady and Bazarov realized that Pavel was against their belief, they moved to visit their relative in the neighboring province. It indicates that Pavel was not for nihilism and believed in the old cultural and moral principles. He did not accept the changes in the cultural principles of the society that could be caused by nihilism beliefs. Pavel supposed that if Bazaarov could continue staying with them in the same home, then he could change the beliefs of everybody to adopt new modern ideologies that were against cultural practices.

Change is an inevitable practice in every society. For instance, as days elapse, there are new ideas and beliefs that can be adopted and practiced. The acquired beliefs and cultural practices erode the initial policies that governed people’s behaviors and the activities they carry out within the community. In the novel of Father and Sons, the belief of nihilism influenced the behaviors of many characters. Most of the characters have shown a significant change in the behaviors and beliefs. Like in the case of Pavel who represented the old nihilism became influenced by Bazarov behavior of kissing Fenichka who he was secretly in love.

It took a brutal fashion when the two characters fought. The war between Pavel and Bazarov was unethical and compromised the cultural and moral principles of the community. The act of Pavel falling in love with Fenichka is also unethical behavior that is not in line with old nihilism because Fenichka was his brother’s wife. The fact that Nikolai married his servant is also an evidence of change in the society. It is ironical to stay with a lady as your servant and at the same time father with her a child.

It means that Nikolai also changed to believe in nihilism that insisted of no real world existence. The son, Arkady who had been influenced and changed his beliefs backed him up when he came from school and even liked his new brother most. Bazarov who believes in nihilism also fell in love with Madame that was contrary to his beliefs.

The societal change is gradual and is caused by several factors. The novel indicates that every character in the society is prone to change. The change in cultural practices and moral principles can either be positive or negative depending on the initial belief of an individual. For example, Pavel believe on the old nihilism that later changed his beliefs by coveting his brother’s wife for love.

The moral principles did not allow such activity but since Pavel was control affectionate emotions, he fought Bazarov because of her. Bazarov who also strongly believed in nihilism was tempted to declare his love to Madame that was contrary to his belief. It means that Bazarov was changing his belief of nihilism to the acceptance of the existence of cultural values. The novel also indicates that Bazarov passed on after being kissed on the forehead by Madame who initially denied his love. The characters who were strongly influenced by nihilism beliefs were Arkady and his father. The father married the servant and he also got engaged with the sister of Madame.

The author

Ivan Turgenev, the author of the novel of Fathers and Sons, depicted the theme of change in different ways. The author used different characters to indicate the types of changes that can occur in the society. The characters such as Pavel, Nikolai father of Arkady represented the old nihilism while Arkady, Bazarov and Madame represented the new modern idealism. The author depicted that everybody is prone to changes and even the cultural and moral values should change simultaneously. If everyone can change their beliefs to nihilism, then the cultural practices and moral principles of the society would also change significantly. For instance, the writer concluded his work by indicating that the characters that represented old nihilism changed their beliefs and those who represented modern idealism also transformed their cultural practices but still believed in nihilism.

In conclusion, the main theme portrayed by Ivan Turgenev’s novel of Fathers and Sons is change. The characters in the play showed clearly the gap between nihilism and old ideas. Through the novel, there are evidences of change from old nihilism to new modern idealism represented by Bazarov. There were some cultures in the community that were considered unethical in the society like if people could not honor the moral principles of the society.

The people who tried to go contrary to the wish and moral principles of the community could sometimes be excommunicated. For instance, in the novel, Pavel is a character who represented leaders who monitors and detect strange behaviors in the society. The acquired beliefs and cultural practices erode the initial policies that governed people’s behaviors and the activities they carry out within the community.

In the novel of Fathers and Sons, the belief of nihilism influenced the behaviors of many characters. Most of the characters have shown a significant change in the behaviors and beliefs. The author used different characters to indicate the types of changes that can occur in the society. The characters such as Pavel, Nikolai father of Arkady represented the old nihilism while Arkady, Bazarov and Madame represented the new modern idealism.

Five Exercises That Will Make You Write 10,000 Words Per Month

It’s every writer’s dream to write thousands of words in a short period. You could be writing magazine columns, periodical book projects, for digital clients or other wide range of writing-related endeavors.

If you intend to hit that word count in the amount you will have to work on the time spent writing, the rate of your writing, the value of your writing and the passion of your writing.

Here are a few simple tricks and exercises that can help you that goal of clocking 10,000 words:

Have a Plan and Generate Specific Ideas

Writers can sit down and fill the blank pages with the natural power of the intense creativity. Words will flow from their fingertips in flashes of brilliance. They do not have to think twice about what they are writing or where the story is headed. For other penmen, they have to plan to make the writing much easier to handle.

At the end of your writing on the first instance, you can take time to reflect. You plan for the next day’s work, I you are a meticulous outliner you will know what you are going to do the following day.

This exercise will assist you to get your subconscious percolating so that it can deliver the killer genius when you write next. In instances where you are not an outliner, you could note down your writing goals for the next day.

Come up with ideas for a daily writing challenge. Organize those ideas in Trello.  You can even use a more traditional approach of noting down that list physically. Write a summary of things to intend to cover before you start writing.

Keep a Notebook

If you intend to write, you will require a steady flow of ideas. It is essential to keep a notebook close enough so that you can take notes without much effort. The notebook could be physical or digital. Anytime you get an idea, jot it down on your notebook.

You can use a combination of Moleskin notebook and Evernote. You need to sustain your creativity if you want to keep up high – quality output.

The good thing about using notebooks to assist you in writing is that you can maintain the flow of the writing as you have already mapped out the work you intend to cover in a specific amount of time.

Get Your Head Straight

You should train your brain to know when it is time to write and when it is time to stop writing. Ensure you create a writing routine for yourself. You could have a selected playlist for any writing project you are undertaking. This will help you switch into writing mode.

You can have a daily word count that you have targeted before you stop writing. When you hit it, you can quit writing. You could also set time for each sit-down. When you set a daily goal, you will make sure that you haven’t stopped until you hit it.

You can try exercise writing. You could write at different times. You could also write about something random. You could write for a small amount of time.

Focus on the Content

Focus on the quality of the material as opposed to the quantity of the content.  The benefit of creating content this way is that you glitz towards your target sooner than you could anticipate. This will help you dedicate your time to creating large volumes of written in a specific amount of time.

When you focus on the quantity of the content, you are likely to be distracted from actually completing the writing project at hand. Your attention usually shifts from what you are writing to the volume. When you place more emphasis on producing quality content, even the material will consequently be taken care of.

 Have Minimal or Few Distractions

Distractions are usually killers of productivity. When you spend time on social media and at the same time you are hoping to hit your writing deadlines, you will be shocked. You will cover very little ground to that end.

Put out your internet before you start working. That way the temptation to log on your device browser will be minimal. You could even go ahead and switch off your device if you still find you will be tempted to turn on the internet signal.

Block out errands you would want to run in the course of bulk content creation time. You could put off any electronic device that is off. Lower volume of music or the television or the radio. This will help you be attentive.


In conclusion, these exercises could help you achieve the ten thousand words mark in a month. It takes a lot to get there. You can keep improving your writing as you set out to write more and create bulk content.

Character Analysis in ‘Frankenstein’ and ‘Macbeth’

The power and ambition

The power and ambition, two dominant themes, are prominent in the books. The thirst for power is the main fuel for the ambition in the two characters. Macbeth is ambitious and willing to do anything including slaying of innocent people. For this, Macbeth and his wife lose connection with people and become isolated and distant with their family and friends to the extent of betraying them. Likewise, Victor Frankenstein is ambitious. He undertakes a project to create the monster. While immersing himself in his work, he ultimately locks out all the individuals from his life focusing only on his creation.

Evidently, in the wake of their ambition, it is visible that the characters in the story overcome emotion and trample on the idea of innocence in order to achieve their aim. The actions work towards presenting their lack of appreciation of human life. Victor blames the act of violence done by the monster on Justine who is executed despite her innocence. Victor feels very little remorse but thinks that the idea was within an ultimate plan. Similarly, Macbeth harbors no remorse for the murders he commits without apathy especially of the children and women who are killed. Despite his lack of emotion, the Macbeth is haunted by his conscience of the actions.

Both characters are afflicted by hallucinations. In the case of Macbeth, he has visions of a floating dagger with voices urging him to murder Duncan. The hallucinations, eventually, become truth where he kills Duncan when he visits. In a similar manner, Frankenstein perceived the visions of his creation despite not having undertaken the creation process. Based on the evidence mentioned in the essay, it is visible that the two characters are well deserving of their fate. Victor and Macbeth‘s ambition drives them to do unethical things which are harming to human life.

The flaws in the characters

Frankenstein and Macbeth are flawed characters. Each shares a desire to accomplish set goals based on their focus in life. They are both taunted and seduced by power. Victor is seduced by his intelligence in the field of science and philosophy while Macbeth is taunted by his desire for leadership. Based on these desires driven by power, they fall into an ethical path, which leads them to a dark path. Each has little value of human life, evident in Macbeth’s killing of Duncan and Victor’s support for the execution of Justine whom he blames for his monster’s violent actions.

The flaws in the characters present theirultimate fate of failure. In their selfish drives, the characters attempt to accomplish the impossible. For Victor, his desire to create life is to have something to control and ultimate have the ability and power to end life. In comparison, the selfishness of Macbeth causes his isolation and blinded ambition fueled by the divination of the witches, which leads him to kill Banquo, Duncan and other characters in order to ascend to the throne.

As flawed characters, it is in their ultimate plan to fail. Both Victor and Macbeth do not see the folly of their desires and actions blinded by their individual drive. With that in mind, they are not able to see their failure in their venture. Victor in the blindness of his pursuit becomes less human and ultimately becomes more monster than man becomes in his actions. In a similar manner, Macbeth is driven to the point of insanity mainly due to his confrontation by his conscience on the murders.

Six Active Blogging and Writing Communities Where You Can Share an Experience

Writers live a solitary life due to the nature of their job. They spend most of their time in quiet and lonely places thinking about the next writing idea for their blog. Friends and family will often not understand their solitude life. It is no wonder majority writers find solace in alcohol. There are several writing communities where you the blogger can fit perfectly.

Why Join a Writing Community?

There are days you lack motivation, and you fail to come up with great ideas for the content. Friends and family cannot bail you out because they do not understand the importance of writing epic content and will, therefore, agree with any casual idea you suggest.  When you belong to a community, you can submit your content, and the community will be honest and give actionable feedback.

Support and Encouragement

A fellow writer will understand your writing struggles. They know how frustrating it is to look for a theme or create characters and challenge of building content from scratch. The members create an environment where you can seek advice and a community ready to support you during trying times and motivate you not to despair.

A Quick Audience for Your Reviews

After you have finished your content, post it in the group and check out the comments of other writers. The Beta readers will help you catch some mistakes you might have overlooked even after re-reading the piece a hundred times. In some instances, the writers may not offer a solution to the problem, but at least they can pin it out.

A Marketing Platform

In addition to having people subscribe to your content, you need to learn other marketing tricks from the writing community. It is a good trick especially for bloggers because most communities have a dedicated space that promotes the content of the members.

Writing Communities

  1. Absolute Write Water Cooler

It is an active online community of writers, publishers, and editors. Absolute Write Water Cooler has numerous forums that provide links from publishers to other resources and contain informational articles that help the writers build on their skills. It has many genres including:

  • Erotica
  • Historical writing
  • Animals
  • Mystery and thriller
  • Memoir and Autobio
  • Sports and fitness
  • Young adult

It is an excellent platform for all types of writers: screenwriting, fiction and non-fiction writers, comic book writers, freelance writing, bloggers, podcasts, and even songwriting. The platform is resourceful for beginners as it has various resources such as:

  • Book promotions
  • Beta readers
  • Call for submissions
  • Mentors and writing companions
  • Writing exercises
  • And self-publishing works

The platform has many bloggers especially because of their writing lab that helps writers in the use of language and ESL. The writing exercises are a great way of improving your skills.

  1. Slack

Slack is currently the fastest growing online community and a business app. It boasts of over 500,000 organizations and over 7 million active users. The mission of Slack is to bring writing teams together and boost their productivity. The workspaces are independent of each other, and you can switch back and forth between spaces. It provides the following services to bloggers:

  • Buffer
  • Marketers chat
  • CreativeTribes
  • Start-up chat
  • Online marketing
  1. Scribophile

If you are looking for a platform that will offer constructive criticism, Scribophile is the right site. The community openly analyses and critiques the member’s content and provide feedback. The community aims at criticizing member content, and the critiques earn points that are used to enter into a contest. The points can also be turned into gifts for the member. It is a free membership program, but you can upgrade to premium for a fee of $65 per year.

  1. TheHatrackRiver Writers Workshop

An online writing community with several links to other useful resources. There are Open discussions for writers that seek to answer all writing questions and a workshop writing class that has assignments and stories to help the writer practice their writing skills or develop a story.

  1. Figment

Figment writers cover topics such as the general writing tips, cover design and off the wall topics. It is a lively and fun community, and the members are very welcoming.

  1. CritiqueCircle

One of the oldest online community started back in 2003. It operates like Scribophile where members earn points for writing a critique and submitting feedback of other members content. The platform is open for all types of writers: short stories, novels, genre fiction, and other written works. There is a blog with practical writing information, publishing information and classifieds. The members interact through games and general discussions.

In conclusion, a community can help you combat depression and loneliness impacting both your career and life. Belong to a community that motivates you, offers information about funding activities and writing residencies.


Analysis of the Hunger Games

The hunger games refer to a series of annual events that take place in Panem a country in the science fiction books by Suzanne Collins. The novels are titled The Hunger Games published in 2008; Catching Fire released in 2009, and the Mockingjay published in 2010. The three novels have been adapted into films with the Mockingjay split into two parts. The books revolve around the Panem nation that consists of thirteen districts were most of the country’s administrative business are conducted in the Capitol. Besides, the hunger games were established as punishment for rebellion. Importantly, the thirteen districts had started a rebellion against the Capitol leading to the invention of the games. The main aim of this paper is to provide an intensive analysis of the movies. The paper will consider areas such as symbolism, motifs, and themes. Additionally, the paper will also consider the value of human life in the story.


The novels use several ideas, and the major ones include inequality between the poor and the rich, suffering as entertainment, the importance of appearance. Firstly, the disparity between the wealthy and the have-nots, in Panem, most the wealth is owned by the rich people majorly those who are living in the Capitol and some other districts. Moreover, the result of such inequality is a huge disparity that exists between the rich and have-nots. Besides, the difference is portrayed throughout the novel, and the major one is the food. Furthermore, in the low-income districts, many citizens do not have adequate nutrition. Additionally, Katniss describes that, in district twelve starvation is common and that she hunts illegally to provide food for her family.

Furthermore, the book shows that some of the households in the community do not know how to hunt so Katniss shares with them what she gets. Likewise, Katniss later gets to learns that Peeta’s father has a bakery in the district and is one of the well-off and high income earning families in the area. Besides, she cannot have enough money to by the food the bakery bakes and thus eats from the stake leftovers. On the contrary, when she arrives in the Capitol she is served with lavishing and well-prepared food. Furthermore, the food is abundant and delicious, and she tries hot chocolate for the first time. Another disparity between the rich and the poor is seen in the selection for the participation of the game. The poor children are much more likely to be selected for the games. Furthermore, when the rich children are chosen, they are trained giving them an advantage over the poor children.

Another theme in the novel is suffering as entertainment; the game presents suffering as a way of mass entertainment. Besides, the more the tributes hurt each other and bear in battle the more entraining the tournaments are. Besides, the crucial draw of the games is the prurience viewing the children dying and killing each other. Katniss in several instances talks of the past games and what made them fruitful and unsuccessful. Moreover, the viewers want to see the tributes battling each other and not dying quickly. Additionally, the principle is best shown at the end of the book in Cato’s slow death. Likewise, when the mutations have defeated Cato, the game makers do not want to kill him immediately because they believe it creates a gruesome spectacle.

The suffering in the games does not necessarily have to be physical. It can also be psychological, Peeta’s and Katniss romance in the games, for instance, is much more fascination as it is prophesied to be doomed. The two tributes develop into star-crossed lovers making their love affair ill-fated. Moreover, the promise of misery adds drama in movie making the games fun to watch. Most of the participants in the games are reluctant, and the winning in the games entails killing and outliving other competitors. The hunger games take the form on the ancient Roman gladiatorial games.

      Importantly another, major theme in the movie is the importance of appearances. In the book Katniss and her fellow characters use her outer appearances to device how viewers see her. For instance during the reaping ritual, she does not cry in front of cameras as it will show weakness. Importantly, during the start of the tornaments, the book stresses on how important appearances are by focusing on her presentation. Moreover, the primary area of concentration is the costume prepared for her by Cinna. The dress makes Katniss stand out among other tributes. The dress was made of artificial blazes, therefore, earning her the name the girl on fire.

Further, the tributes who become the most notable would tend to get sponsors who were in a position provide gifts. Katniss hides her tears in the movie for self-pitying other tributes for unattractive sponsors. A behavior and appearance that is crucial for a survival strategy. Besides, the most notable appearance in the film is her romantic relationship with Peeta. The relationship is not genuine on her end but she does care about Peeta and in the end develops romantic interest him. Moreover, she plays up her feeling for Peeta in front of cameras, and it work as it convinces the viewers majorly the ones in the Capitol that she is madly in love with him. However, the action is majorly for strategic motives, and it helps elicit more gifts from sponsors. Additionally, the performance is crucial to both her and Peeta’s survival in the games.


           Motifs is any recurring element in a story that has a symbolic significance. The movie uses three principal motifs, and they are fire, defiance, and hunting. Fire plays several different important roles in the book. Importantly, fire in the book is the primary element that provides several outfits for instance Cinna dress. The dress is covered with synthetic fire but still maintains fire as a motif. Hence, Katniss gains the name the girl on fire. Another theme used in the movies is defiance. The novels from the beginning are filled with acts of resistance. Majorly the biggest challenge is the on against Capitol control. Gale’s and Katniss illegally hunts in the wood which is also another act of defiance because they are willing to violate the Capitols laws.

Moreover, in District 12 there is a black market referred to as the hob. Besides, the sign of respect that the citizens of District 12 give Katniss after volunteering is an act of defiance as it contradict the capital behavior of what they want and expect. Additionally, hunting appears several times in the novel, but it takes no different meanings depending on circumstances. Importantly, the book from the being portrays Katniss as a hunter and feed her family trough hunting. Furthermore, Katniss met Gale though hunting and become best of friends. Besides, to survive in the games, the tributes have to hunt and kill their fellow participants. Likewise, Peeta refers to the games as hunting as they are searching other players to shoot.

Value of human life in the novel

         The book the hunger games select teenagers and forces them to fight in an arena while the whole nation is watching. The leaders in the Capitol use this tactic to dehumanize citizens in other districts. In the novel dehumanization is in broad scale by assigning little value to human life. The books use two types of dehumanisation firstly denying human attributes to some people. The other form of dehumanisation involves everyday social phenomenon the revolves around indifference or apathy. The individuals in the Capitol used other districts as a source of entertainment and resources. This is mostly seen through the hunger games. Additionally, in the hunger games, most tributes are denied water and food. Those participants who were able to attract suitable sponsors are the only ones who have access to such things.

Besides, this demonstrates that dehumanised people are treated as they lack the capacity of conscious awareness and reasoning. Moreover, the rulers lack control, and they do not care how it affects other families. Likewise towards the end of the novel the team that prepared Katniss for appearance after winning the games is mostly concerned with what they were doing than the dying and the killing that took place in the arena. The citizens in the Capitol were egocentric, and they did not empathy for murder and pain the tributes had to endure in the arena.

In conclusion, the story hunger game is a book that has received full acknowledgement around the world. Although, written in a mythical science fiction world the book portrays most activities that are happening currently around the world. Such factors such as the dehumanisation of human life as some nations see themselves superior than other countries and exploit their resources for their benefit.